Online ISSN 2359-7569
ISSN-L 2359-7569

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  • Type of Articles

    Being familiar with the various types of scientific papers is essential for construction of the
    manuscript in the correct format.
    The following types of articles are published by the Annals of "Dimitrie Cantemir" Christian
    University - Economy, Commerce and Tourism Series.




    The article itself is an abstract of a paper or presentation that has been presented or published separately.


    Additional information about or clarification of another published article. (The similar value “correction” corrects an error in previously published material.)


    Analyses provide an in-depth prospective and informed analysis of a policy, major advance, or historical description of a topic related to fields covered by our journal. These articles should be no more than 6,000 words with no more than 3 figures and 1 table. Analyses contain four sections:
    (i) Abstract
    (ii) Introduction
    (iii) Topics (with headings and subheadings)
    (iv) Conclusions and Outlook

    (only invited*)

    The similar value: commentary
    The article has, as its subject or focus, another article or articles; a commentary should add a further perspective or point of view to a particularly important research report or learned review. It must be a short piece which is original and thought provoking and should stimulate debate and discussion. Rather than being a review of the article, authors should use the findings as a stepping stone to make one or two points of wider relevance to the field. For example, for a controversial article, the editors of the Annals of "Dimitrie Cantemir" Christian University - Economy, Commerce and Tourism Series might invite an author of an opposing opinion to comment on the first article and publish the two together. A commentary should be approximately 800 words with references and 6 key words should be included as part of a commentary. When commenting upon a research report or review, a reference should be made to this text at the beginning of the commentary and included in the reference list.

    (only invited*)

    The similar value: product-review is a review or analysis of a product, service, or website.
    Review or analysis of one or more printed or electronic books. Book reviews should be more than simply a summary of the book’s content and should place the book in the content of other literature in the field. These articles provide a description of the book being reviewed, the strengths and weaknesses of the book, and the intended audience. Reviewers should aim to make them a ‘good read’. On occasion it may be appropriate for a reviewer to offer a negative appraisal of a book but vituperation is to be avoided. The books reviewed are selected to be of interest to the journal’s international readership and the reviews should identify what is good and worthwhile in the book for our journal’s varied readers.


    A short and/or rapid announcement of research results.


    The similar value: case study, case report, or other description of a case. Other terms to try include cross sectional studies, facility case studies, longitudinal studies, and case records.
    A case study is often used to report the occurrence of interesting or 'unusual' phenomena and is a detailed analysis focusing on a particular problem of an individual, group, community or organization. The purpose of a case study is to highlight a problem, make other researchers aware of the possibility that a specific phenomenon might occur, discuss a way in which the problem can be solved or present the need for research, practice or theoretical matters.
    Case reports should include a brief statement explaining why the case is worth documenting followed by a thorough account of the case, including sufficient data. There should then be a discussion section that includes evidence that the case is unique or unexpected and outlines any alternative explanations for case features. A conclusion detailing implications should end the case report.
    Case reports should be no longer than 3000 words and should include a structured abstract that contains:

    1. a summary of the subject and important characteristics of the individual, group, community or organization
    2. a review of the nature of the problem studied, or answer to the problem demonstrated by the case study
    3. any questions presented for further research or theory

    Case Reports contain five sections:
    (i) Abstract
    (ii) Introduction
    (iii) Case Presentation (presentation, observations, test results, and accompanying figures)
    (iv) Discussion
    (v) Conclusions

    Case Series

    A case series is a description based on a series of case studies. Each case should be structured in a similar way to case reports and generalisations should be drawn from each of the cases. Ideally, a good case series (also called a review of cases) also cites the literature in which all other known cases were reported. Case series should be no longer than 3000 words.


    The similar value: “erratum” or “errata”
    A modification or correction of previously published material. (The similar value “addendum” merely adds to previously published material.)

    (only invited*)

    ‘For debate’ articles are opinion pieces up to 3000 words in length. They aim to stimulate debate and present new ideas. They should be written in an international context and make one or two key points that are more in the way of opinion rather than fact. The point(s) will normally challenge existing thinking, raise an issue that has been neglected, take an issue forward that is currently being considered, or reinforce one side of a debate that is currently underway. It can concern matters of policy, theory or methodology and should be written in a lively and engaging style.
    “For debate” articles are usually commissioned but are sometimes unsolicited papers accepted for publication and then chosen by the editors. Occasionally particularly topical or lengthier editorials will be turned into ‘for debate’ articles. Approximately 3–4 commentaries will normally be commissioned to accompany them. Commentators will be chosen carefully to provide alternative opinions on the debatable issue. The Annals of "Dimitrie Cantemir" Christian University - Economy, Commerce and Tourism Series strives to commission international commentators. Once the commentaries have been accepted for publication, the author of the ‘for debate’ article will be given the opportunity to respond to the commentaries, and the response will be published alongside the ‘for debate’ article and its commentaries.

    (only invited*)

    Discussions are full-length articles used by authors to discuss opinions, issues, and ideas. It may sometimes look similar to a research study, but it doesn’t have the same formal structure and it is not always based on existing literature. The main focus of this kind of study is to explore new areas, suggest topics for future research, and share opinions.

    (only invited*)

    The similar value: Opinion piece/policy statement/general commentary (The similar value “article-commentary” is reserved for a commentary on a specific article or articles.)
    An editorial is a short paper typically written by either the journal's editor(s) or by a guest editor that may serve to introduce topics covered within a journal issue. Published at the start of the journal, an editorial should be a significant piece of academic writing. An editorial is distinct from a review – it is shorter and provides a place in which one has the distinct aim of stimulating debate, identifying ideas, presenting opposing opinions, clarifying positions, providing readers with updated information on new methods or procedures and pushing ideas further forward.
    It should make one or two key points that are more in the way of opinion rather than fact. The point(s) will normally challenge existing thinking, raise an issue that has been neglected, take a current issue forward, or reinforce one side of a debate that is currently under way. It can concern matters of practice, theory or methodology and should be written in a lively and engaging style with the point(s) very clearly stated.
    An editorial should also be written from an international perspective. Editorials should be under 1000 words and should contain references and key words.

    Individual series
    (only invited*)

    Our journal publishes individual commissioned series based on specific topics. These papers are normally limited to 3500 words.

    (only invited*)

    An introduction to the publication, a series of articles within the publication, etc., typically for a special section or issue.

    (only invited*)

    A letter to the publication or to its editors represents a (usually) brief communication that may express opinions about articles previously published in the journal, report on a development, or comment on some issue of potential interest to the readership of the journal. Some letters include extensive commentary with careful referencing to the literature and thus can serve as a valuable source to the primary research literature. They will normally be refereed.
    Letters should be no longer than 500 words with references. They should not normally contain tables, diagrams or figures. If a letter comments upon a paper already published in the journal, this should be cited at the beginning of the letter.

    Literature review

    Literature review summarizes previous literature on a particular topic. These articles critically evaluate previously published material. The organization, combination of the previously published material, and evaluation of this material provide an understanding of the progress of research in clarifying a problem. Literature reviews then:

    • provide a definition and clarification of the problem
    • provides a summary of earlier research to inform the reader of what the research status is
    • identifies relationships, contradictions, gaps and inconsistencies in the material
    • makes suggestions in the next step to solving the problem

    A literature review abstract contains the following:

    1. a summary of the problem being investigated
    2. the types of participants who are featured in the primary studies
    3. a summary of the main results
    4. the conclusions
    5. implications for theory, policy or practice.


    The similar value: action based research, action research, and practicum.
    A meta-analysis is an integrative study that utilizes the results of several separate existing studies and analyses them in a new way looking for previously unnoticed patterns or trends. Typically, the results are presented as a graph depicting the individual and pooled odds ratios (with confidence intervals) for all studies included in the analysis.

    Methodological articles

    In methodological articles, new approaches, changes to existing methods or the discussion of quantitative and data analytic approaches to the research community are presented. Readers of these articles can make a comparison of the proposed methods with those methods currently in place, and can implement the proposed methods.
    The abstract for a methodological article includes the following:

    1. an overview of the general class of methods
    2. the main elements of the proposed methods
    3. the breadth of application for the proposed method
    4. for statistical procedures, a summary of some of the essential features including robustness or power efficiency.


    Our journal publishes occasional monographs of up to 10,000 words, including references. Not more than one monograph will be published per issue at the discretion of the editor. Monographs are distinct from research reports and constitute major pieces of writing that cannot be expressed within the usual length limits. Monographs might include extensive systematic reviews of major topics or a series of linked studies addressing a common research question. These articles will go through the usual peer review process; however, the editor will only accept monographs that are of substantial importance. There will be no appeals for rejected monographs, but rejection will not preclude authors from submitting papers based on the material as standard research reports.
    Authors wishing to submit monographs for consideration should submit in the usual way, but should add a note in their cover letter explaining that they would like the submission to be treated as a monograph. Monographs should carry structured abstracts (no more than 300 words) and include headings similar to those of research reports (see below).


    Perspectives provide a personal view on specific topics in a clear narrative voice. Articles can relate personal experiences, historical perspective, or scientist profile on people or topics important in the fields of economics, business and society. These articles should be no more than 6,000 words. Perspectives contain four sections:
    (i) Abstract
    (ii) Introduction
    (iii) Topics (with headings and subheadings)
    (iv) Conclusions and Outlook


    The similar value: Original Article, Original Research, Empirical Research, Primary Research or just Article, depending on the journal. (The related value “review-article” describes a literature review, research summary, or state-of-the-art article.).
    Research articles are papers that report original findings from primary data. The study may be qualitative or quantitative and may involve experimental or non-experimental designs.
    The Editor-in-Chief selects articles for this subheading from among accepted Research Reports. Articles chosen for this category deal with methodological issues, such as the development of new measures, the evaluation of new or existing measures, procedures for recruiting samples, methods for analysing data, and methods for synthesizing evidence.
    To encourage full and transparent reporting of research we do not set fixed limits for the length of research articles. Nonetheless, please try to make your article concise and make every word count. We suggest 4000 words, excluding abstract, tables and references. 
    Elements typically found in an empirical study include:
    (i) Abstract: must be structured (250 word limit) and include the following headings: Aims, Design, Settings, Participants, Measurements, Findings, Conclusions and implications or applications of the study's findings.
    (ii) Introduction:  traces the way the problem that is being investigated has developed, and provides the purpose for the investigation.
    (iii) Method:  indicates how the investigation was conducted; what procedures were used.
    (iv) Results: reports the findings and analyses of the investigation
    (v) Discussion: summarizes, interprets and discusses the implications of the investigation results


    Retraction or disavowal of previously published material.


    The similar value: Overview, Review or state-of-the-art summary article. (The related value “research-article” describes original research.)
    Review Articles provide a comprehensive summary of research on a particular subject, and a perspective on the state of the field and where it is heading. They are often written by leaders in a particular discipline after invitation from the editors of a journal and are often widely read (for example, by researchers looking for a full introduction to a field) and highly cited. Reviews commonly cite approximately 100 primary research articles.
    There are two types of review articles: non-systematic (or journalistic) reviews and systematic reviews. Non-systematic or journalistic reviews provide a summary of evidence derived from primary studies that have been selected and synthesized according to the author's personal and professional perspective. Non-systematic reviews can cover a wide range of subject matter at various levels of completeness and comprehensiveness. Systematic reviews, on the other hand, provide summaries of related primary studies that have been searched for, evaluated, and selected and reported according to a rigorous and predefined methodology. Systematic reviews will set out very clearly the search strategy (including key words where appropriate), the selection criteria for articles to include, and the basis for integrating findings.
    These can be submitted as a mini-review (less than 2,500 words, 3 figures, and 1 table) or a long review (no more than 6,000 words, 6 figures, and 3 tables). They should include critical assessment of the works cited, explanations of conflicts in the literature, and analysis of the field. The conclusion must discuss in detail the limitations of current knowledge, future directions to be pursued in research, and the overall importance of the topic. Reviews contain four sections:
    (i) Abstract (that must be structured and include the following headings: Aims, Methods, Results and Conclusions.
    (ii) Introduction
    (iii) Topics (with headings and subheadings)
    (iv) Conclusions and Outlook

    Theoretical articles

    Theoretical articles use existing research to advance theory. The development of theory is traced in order to expand and refine theoretical constructs. A new theory may be presented, or an existing theory may be analysed to highlight flaws or showing the advantage of one theory over another. A theory's internal consistency and external validity are examined in this type of article.
    The abstract for a theoretical article includes the following:

    1. a discussion of how the theory or model under review works, and/or how the principle upon which the theory or model is based
    2. what the theory or model accounts for, and connections to empirical results.


    Volume 4 - June 2012

    Volume 3 - June 2011

    Volume 2 - June 2010

    Volume 1 - June 2009

    The following types of articles are not selected for coverage in Annals of „Dimitrie Cantemir” Christian University – Economy, Commerce and Tourism Series.




    Material being announced in the publication; such material may or may not be directly related to the publication.


    Notification of items, such as books, that have been received by the publication for review or other consideration.


    A list of events


    Invited discussion related to a specific article or issue.


    Summary of items in the current issue.


    Report of a conference, symposium, or meeting.


    News item, typically labeled “News”.


    An announcement of a death or an appreciation of a colleague who has recently died. Obituaries are a maximum of 150 words, including biographical details: the last position held, date of birth, place and year of qualification, postgraduate qualifications if applicable, and date and cause of death.


    Reprint of a speech or oral presentation.


    Description, analysis, or review of a product, service, website, etc., for example, a software package. (The similar value “book-review” provides the same sort of review or description of a published work.)

    Rapid communications

    These papers communicate findings that editors believe will be interesting to many researchers, and that will likely stimulate further research in the field. Rapid Communications are usually published soon after submission to the journal, so this format is useful for scientists with results that are time sensitive (for example, those in highly competitive or quickly-changing disciplines). This format often has strict length limits, so some experimental details may not be published until the authors write a full Original Research manuscript.


    Reply to a letter or commentary, typically by the original author commenting upon the comments.


    Informal, anecdotal reports or articles, Poems, Interviews, Papers presented at conferences or symposia (unless they are published as articles in our journals)



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